Pencak Silat Glossaries
- Ajaran budi pekerti luhur
The meaning of this term is the teaching of noble mind and character. According to the perception of the local and ethnic communities of Nusantara, philosophy contains teaching, and otherwise, teaching contains philosophy. Teaching inherent to philosophy and philosophy inherent to teaching. Philosophy and teaching is a view and wisdom of human life in relation with social, cultural, moral and religion values which are esteemed highly by the communities. Both of those ones equally formulate the view on and the advice for human being in his living, lifeÂ and living course. The substance of advice involves guidance to be enforced and prohibitions to be kept away. Thus, the philosophy of noble mind and character can also be called as the teaching of noble mind and character. BothÂ have the same meaning.
Mind is a human spiritual activity which has three dynamic elements as a unity, that is, the activity of willing, sensing and reasoning. Character is moral and reflecting mind. Noble means sublime or high esteem. Thus, the meaning of noble mind and character is the activities of sublime willing, sensing, reasoning and character based on a firm belief in and devote to God.
Willing determines necessity (obligation) and prohibition, sensing determines good and bad, reasoning determines right and wrong. Thus, willing connecting with mental-spiritual (moral), sensing with emotion, and reasoning with intelligence. External manifestation of noble mind and character in the form of individual regular practice are sublime or high esteem attitude, deed and behavior.
The teaching of noble mind and character is a divine moral teaching. According to this teaching, human being in his living, life and living course has 4 kinds of sublime status as a unity. Firstly, is the status of Godâ€™s being, because human being comes from and will return to God. God is the origin and living goal of all human beings. Secondly, is the status of individual (personal) being, because each man (person) has his own personality which is unique and different with the other human beings. Personality constitutes the characteristic of someone. Thirdly, is the status of social being, because in this world human being does not live alone but lives in a community together with the other human beings. Fourthly, is the status of universal being, because human being lives in a living environment which are integral part of the nature together with its contents (its ecology) created by God for human beings as His favor and generosity.
For that each status, human being has sublime obligation (noblesse oblige) which mustÂ be fulfilled. The sublime obligation of human being as Godâ€™s creature is to believe in and devote to God and always upholds religion values. The sublime obligation of human being as individual creature is to put his personality in high esteem and always upholds the individual moral values. The sublime obligation of human being as a social creature is to uphold peace and friendship and the social and cultural moral values. The sublime obligation of human being as universal creature is loving his living environment and always upholding the natural-universal moral values. All of those obligations are related and connected each other and are directed to achieve one goal, that is, to obtain Godâ€™s bless.
The foremostÂ parts of the teaching of noble mind and character are discipline and leadership. Discipline is the manifestation of self-control in the form of autonomously obeying, upholding and putting into practice religion, social, cultural and law values which are esteemed highly by the communities. Leadership is also the manisfestaion of self-control in the form of persuasively influencing, actuating, directing and controlling Â the other in reaching the determined goal by always showing kind examples in thinking, reasoning, and speaking as well as in daily attituting, doing and behaviouring based on loving (familial), developing (smarting) and protecting spirit, so that the other can become sincere loyal, obedient, active and effective followers.Â Discipline is obliged to be uphold by all community members, whereas leadership is obliged to be uphold by they who are recognized and accepted as leaders by a group of community.
In accordance with the statuses, positions and obligations of human being, the teaching of noble mind and character has 7 insights, that is, the insights of divine, humanity, peace, friendship, resilience, development, struggle and gallantry. Based on those mentioned insights, every steady practice of human being :
a.Â Â Â Â Â Must be able to be responsible to God.
b.Â Â Â Â Â Must not contravenes the ethic of just and civilized humanity.
c.Â Â Â Â Â Must be peacefully and friendly in facing everyone, included the opponent.
d.Â Â Â Â Â Must be able to actualize mental and physical tenacity and perseverance in facing various handicaps and problems.
e.Â Â Â Â Must be able to increase continually personal quality and advance.
f.Â Â Â Â Â Must be not easily give up and continually goes onward in the struggle to actualize sublime goal.
g.Â Â Â Â Must always to uphold truth, honesty and justice and test-proofed in facing all ordeals and temptations.
The teaching of noble mind and character has toÂ inspire and to become spiritual base of Pencak Silat and motivation source of the usage of Pencak Silat. According to this teachingâ€™s view, Pencak Silat as an effective self-defense system has to becomeÂ a sublime means and must be used for a sublime objective as well. It means that Pencak Silat can be used only for self-defending. When Pencak Silat must be used in fighting, the carrying out of it must always be controlled and measured. Attacking arbitrarily and capriciously, is a prohibited action. Pencak Silat must be viewed as deterrent force and preventive force. Deterrent force is a force which will stimulate the opponent to repeatedly thinks and makes consideration when he wants to attack physically. Preventive force is a force for always wary and be careful. Pencak Silat as repressive force is only used as the latest choice and in a forced condition (ultimum remidium).
The goal of the teaching of noble mind and character is to shape human beingÂ who beliefs in and devotes to God, owning sublime personality, always upholding peace and friendship and love his living environment. These measures compel human being to own strong ability, capability and endurance of self-control, by which he is obliged to controlÂ himself and his interests. The teaching of noble mind and character and its goals areÂ normative and imperative to be applied and actualized in human living, life and living course.
The essence of the teaching of noble mind and character is self-control. Self-control does not means self-bridle but mastering, placing, taking, functioning, rolling and directing oneself through sublime way and for sublimeÂ purpose based on self consciousness and autonomous intention.
The sense of the spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat is similar with the essence of the teaching of noble mind and character, that is, self-control. This purpose constitutes trusteeship for every Pencak Silat practisioner to perform and use Pencak Silat in fighting to be controlled and measured. Not overdose or redundant, arbitrarily, despotism and capriciously, in the form of cruel treatment or soul vanishing.
In that connection, the teaching of noble mind and character along with its goal constitute one of the criteria of the genuine spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat, namely Pencak Silat that come from and which is the product of the culture of Nusantara local and ethnic communities. Self-defense system naming itself Pencak Silat but its spiritual base is not the teaching of noble mind and character, essentially is not Pencak Silat.
- Aliran Pencak Silat
Aliran means a unique appearance and outstanding characteristics in performing or practicing Pencak Silat ethically, technically, aesthetically and athletically, which is coloured by local and ethnic culture of the Nusantara communities.
Whatever unique the performance of an aliran is, the 4 values of Pencak Silat, that is the values of ethics, techniques, aesthetics and athletics, or the 4 aspects of Pencak Silat, that is the aspects of mental-spiritual, self-defense, arts and sports as a unity, must exist and can be seen in its substance. If not, it has no value as an aliran Pencak Silat.
It is not easy to distinguish the aliran Pencak Silat. Only those who are experts and who understand various techniques of Pencak Silat thoroughly, can do so. The difference of the alirans is only concerning the physical and it is not concerning the mental-spiritual and philosophical aspects. Therefore, the alirans is not the system of sect. No matter whatever kind or aliran Pencak Silat, it is always inspired by and based on the teaching of noble mind and character.
The existence of the alirans using supernatural mighty power has enriched Pencak Silat. Various aliran Pencak Silat are taught in perguruans Pencak Silat.
The well-known alirans Pencak Silat in Indonesia are among other the aliran of Cimande, Cikalong, Minangkabau and Betawi.
- Bapak and Ibu
Literaly Bapak means father.Â Socially and culturally Bapak means predicate in calling a man who is considered honorable because of his age, position, role, knowledges, experiences, benevolences, attitude, deed and behavior (manner). For woman, the calling predicate with the same meaning is Ibu.
4.Â Â Guru
Literaly guru means teacher or master. Socially and culturally guru means an example man whose words are to be trusted and whose conducts are to be taken as an example, because of his honorable position, role, knowledges, experiences, science, benevolences, attitude, deed and behavior (manner). Connecting with guru is Guru Besar and berguru.
Guru Besar has the same meaning with Pendekar and Maha Guru, which means Grand Master, that is a man whoÂ masters all kinds of Pencak Silat techniques and their performance tricks as well as the teaching of noble mind and character, implemented in personal and social discipline as wel as in kinship leadership. Guru Besar is a new term created by certain perguruans, not all perguruans, inspired and idealized by the same word used in university as the predicate in calling of the highest level of teacher. The purpose is forÂ leveling or grading the ability to execute Pencak Silat as ilmu padi. The hierarchy of the mentioned levels or grade from the lower to the upper levelsÂ are : Pesilat, Pelatih (instructor), Guru, Guru Besar and Maha Guru. Maha Guru can be construed as Senior Guru Besar and has the same meaning with Sesepuh or Pinisepuh.
Berguru means to be studentÂ of or studying to guru Pencak Silat (the teacher of Pencak Silat). Connotatively this term meansÂ studying (learning) intensively and in family spirit, the process of which is observed, watched, guided and supervised directly and intensively by the guruÂ (teacher), so that the progress of the ability and morality of the student can be known clearly. The guru will not educate and upgrade anyone nor extend his education to anyone whose mentality is regarded unworthy. For that reason, in the old time it was not easy for a person to be a student or member of perguruan Pencak Silat. One should take hard or difficult tests concerning mental attitude and pass them before he has accepted as a student.
- Ilmu padi
Literally ilmu padi means the science of paddy or rice plant. Socially, culturally and phylosophically this term means : when the physical capability is increasingly high, the spiritual capability, prominently self-control, must be increasingly strong, firm and solid, so that the spiritual capability can always control the execution of the physical capability. Like the characteristic of paddy, the more luxurious and contented its grains, the more bending will be its stalk.
Ilmu padi is a science relating with the formation of human being who is courageous and mighty but humble and modest, which is symbolized as a bending paddy stalk because of its luxuriant grain contents. It is the science about proficiency to perform Pencak Silat controlled by the sublimity of mind and character, which makes human being to be more modest if his proficiency increase higher and higher. Ilmu padi is also called as the science to be a Pendekar, and Pencak Silat is also called as ilmu padi.
This term means a series of techniques which are groupedÂ in four components, that is positioning, stepping movement, attacking and defending, as a package to achieve a special purpose in the framework of self-defense performance. Jurus is one of the method in Pencak Silat training. The other method are â€œserang-hindarâ€ (attack-avoid),Â e.g. Perisai Diri, â€œmeniru-mengembangkanâ€ (imitate-develop), e.g. in Minangkabau, and â€œbebas untuk mengkombinasikanâ€ (free to combine), e.g. PERPI Harimurti.
The term Nusantara come from the word nusa (island or archipelago) and antara (between or among), which literaly means islands or archipelago between the continents of Asia and Australia as well as the Pacific and Indian oceans. Thus the word Nusantara has the same meaning with Indonesia, which come from the Greece word Indos and Nesos.
Culturally, and especially in the circle of PERSILAT,Â Nusantara means an area in South East Asia involving Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Brumei Darussalam, which is also called as the countries of Rumpun Melayu or the Malay ethnic group. These four countries are the source or native countries of Pencak Silat.
8. Padepokan Pencak Silat Indonesia
Padepokan means a complex of houses on a relatively large area provided for learning and teaching a certain knowledge and skill. A padepokan provided for learning and teaching Pencak Silat is called Padepokan Pencak Silat.
Padepokan Pencak Silat Indonesia (PnPSI) is a padepokan with national and international scale. It is located on a land area of about 5,2 hectares width in the complex of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (The Miniature Park of Beautiful Indonesia), Jakarta. PnPSI is considered as the big home of all members of the big Pencak Silat family throughout the world. It was officially opened by the President of the Republic of Indonesia,Â Mr. Soeharto, on April 20th, 1997.
PnPSI has at least five functions. Firstly, is as a center for information, education, presentation and promotion of various things relating with the Pencak Silat. Secondly, is as a center of various activities relating to the efforts of perpetuating, developing, disseminating and increasing the image of Pencak Silat and its values. Thirdly,Â is as a means for strengtheningÂ the union and the unity of the Indonesian Pencak Silat community. Fourthly,Â is as a means to uphold friendship and peace among Pencak Silat communities in various countries. And fifthly,Â is as a means to socialize the two codes of conduct of Pencak Silat man, that is Prasetya Pesilat Indonesia and Ikrar Pesilat.
PnPSI as a complex consists of 9 buildings, each of which has its own name, that is :
a.Â Â Â Â Â Pendopo Agung, meaning exalted front veranda. It is a place provided for receiving and paying homage to VIP guests of the Padepokan.
b.Â Â Â Â Â Pondok PERSILAT, meaning the Cottage of PERSILAT. This two floors building is used for the office of CB of PERSILAT on the first floor, and for traditional medical treatment and massage on the ground floor.
c.Â Â Â Â Â Pondok IPSI, meaning the Cottage of IPSI. In this 2 floors building, the office of the CB of IPSI located on the first floor and the office of the Area Board of IPSI of Jakarta located on the ground floor.
d.Â Â Â Â Â Pondok Gedeh, meaning Big Cottage. This is a stadium for arranging various Pencak Silat activities, included Pencak Silat competitions. The stadium can accommodate around 3.000 audiences and spectators.
e.Â Â Â Â Â Pondok Serbaguna, meaning Multipurpose Cottage. This is a place for holding meetings, seminars, symposiums etc., included wedding and anniversary celebration parties. This cottage can accommodate around 750 persons and is provided as a rented place.
f.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Pondok Pustaka, meaning the Cottage of Pustaka (Library and Museum). This building has three floors. The library situated at the ground floor, while the museum at the first and second floor. Nowadays, the library has around 6.000 books as its collection, 800 books of which are books concerning Pencak Silat. The museum displays physical supplements of Pencak Silat and illustrations on the develop of Pencak Silat and various things related to it.
g.Â Â Â Â Â Pondok Penginapan, meaning the Cottage of Lodging. This building has four floors and is a rented hotel which has 96 standard rooms and 40 VIP rooms. Office of the Padepokanâ€™s managers situated on the ground floor.
h.Â Â Â Â Â Pondok Meditasi, meaning Meditation Cottage. This cottage consists of 7 artificial caves situated behind the hotel. The caves are provided for they who want to get deeply absorbed condition for doing good and right meditation to find out health, fitness, mental and physical endurance, and the so called mighty powers.
i.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Mushola or the Moslem praying place. This is a place not only for Islamic praying, but also for Islamic religion lectures. This mushola can accommodate around 100 prayers.
Pelatih means instructor. There are two kinds of instructor, namely general and special instructors. General instructor consists of perguruan instructor, local instructor, national instructor and international instructor. They train general techniques of Pencak Silat. Special instructors train special techniques of Pencak Silat for the purpose of Tanding (Match), Tunggal (Single) and Regu (Team) competition in the framework of Achievement Sports Pencak Silat Championship.
10. Pencak Silat
Pencak Silat is a compound word, coming from the local terms Pencak and Silat. These two words have the same meanings and are integral parts of the culture of Nusantara communities.
Philosophically, Pencak Silat has the same meaning or synonim with ilmu padi (the science of paddy), that is, the science about proficiency to perform Pencak Silat controlled by the sublimity of mind and character, which makes human being to be more modest if his proficiency increase higher and higher.
Pencak and Silat, either as self-defense system or terminology, came from the culture of Nusantara communities, and the words Pencak and Silat have no different meaning.
The word Pencak is commonly used by the people in the islands of Java, Madura and Bali, whereas the word Silat is commonly used by the people who live in the other regions of Indonesia as well as in the other Nusantara regions.
The combinations of the words Pencak and Silat into a compound word was made for the first time when an organization uniting all Pencak and Silat perguruans in Indonesia was founded in Surakarta, Central Java, on May 18th, 1948. This organization was named the Indonesian Pencak Silat Association or Ikatan Pencak Silat Indonesia, abbreviated as IPSI. Since then, the word Pencak Silat has become official term in Indonesia. This term is also used by the perguruans in many different countries which teach Pencak and Silat derived from Indonesia.
In the international Pencak Silat communities, the word Pencak Silat has become official term since an international federative organization of Pencak Silat was founded in Jakarta on March 11th, 1980. This organization was called the International Pencak Silat Federation or Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antarabangsa, acronym as PERSILAT. Nevertheless, there are people who use the word Pencak and Silat separately as single word due to their dialect and habit.
Viewed from the teaching of Â noble mind and character endowing and basing the usage motivation, Pencak Silat is basically an empty handed fighting system. The using of weapons is only as complement. In other words, Pencak Silat is performed not automatically or since the beginning by using weapon. Pencak Silat is a fighting system the performing of which must be commenced by non-fighting Pencak Silat and just later by fighting Pencak Silat. Persuasion against the opponent in this process of non-fighting Pencak Silat is carried out in the form of dancing or flowering on the appearance of positioning and stepping movement. The objective is to decrease the opponent gall and spirit which in all at once to push the opponent to think repeatedly in deciding options, that is to continue or to abandon the fighting, which isÂ followed by building peace and friendship.
So, in performing Pencak Silat, the using of weapon is only execute in forced and extraordinary condition or in a condition where weapon is really needed. Among other, if in the fighting the opponent uses weapon and difficult to be overcome by empty handed fighting. In other words, the using of weapon as a supplement in performing Pencak Silat is only carried out where it is needed and as a final choice action (ultimum remedium).
Essentially, Pencak Silat is a substance and means of education in its wide sense, involving education in its narrow sense, teaching and training. Education in its narrow sense, teaching an training, can be distinguished but cannot be separated each other. All of those ones constitute an intact integral unity. Education in its narrow sense relates to mind, character (mental), personality, attitude and behavior. Teaching relates to knowledge and insight. Training relates to technical skill, physical adroitness and struggle spirit.
Education, teaching and training of Pencak Silat involve the two dimensions of Pencak Silat simultaneously and integrally. It means that quantitatively and qualitatively the carrying out and yields of the education must be in conformed, balanced and harmonious condition with the carrying out of the teaching and training of Pencak Silat. The wider and higher the knowledge, theory, skill and trick quantity and quality of the Pencak Silat performer, the more steady and higher must be the quality of his full and total comprehension and its regular practice concerning the teaching of noble mind and character. The higher the teaching and training of Pencak Silat level given to some one, the deeper and wider the education of the teaching of noble mind and character must be given to him. The depth and width in fact must be actualized in the steadiness of full and total comprehension and regular practice of the teaching.
The ideal end yield to be hoped from the education, teaching and training of Pencak Silat is the formation of human being who is courageous but humble, which in the language of old Javanese is catch worded with “bhirawa anuragaâ€, which means mighty but modest. That such human being is symbolized as a bending paddy stalk because of its luxuriant grain contents. The more luxuriant and contented the paddy the more bending the stalk.
11.Pencak Silat branches
Pencak Silat has 4 branches, namely Mental-spiritual Pencak Silat, Self-defense Pencak Silat, Artistic Pencak Silat and Sports Pencak Silat, the source of the birth, growth and development of which is the 4 values of Pencak Silat. Therefore, all of the techniques in each branch of Pencak Silat always have ethical, technical, aesthetic and athletic values or mental-spiritual, self-defense, arts and sports aspects as an integral unity. However, oneÂ value or aspectÂ which is the base of its branch, get special focus or emphasize.
These 4 branches of Pencak Silat, along with their styles (aliran), are perpetuated, developed and disseminated by perguruans and organizations of Pencak Silat in the form of education, teaching and training, and any other various activities.
12. Pencak Silat championship
For international or world scale, PERSILAT had determinedÂ 5 categories of championship, that is world, regional, opened, invitation and special championship.
World championship is the highest achievement arena which is arranged once in 2 years.
Regional championship is an achievement arena among PERSILAT members in the same region. The championship is arranged once in a years.
Opened championship is an achievement arena among PERSILAT members who interested to participate in it.
Invitation championship is an achievement arena for PERSILAT members which are invitedÂ to participate in it. The arrangement time of opened and invitation championships are determinedÂ by the arranger or inviter.
Special championship is one arranged by an organization or body outside PERSILAT using PERSILAT rule and legalized by PERSILAT.
Artistic Pencak Silat Festival can be hold as a series of Sports Pencak Silat Championship of all categories, according with the wish and request of the arranger of the respective Sports Pencak Silat Championship and is agreed by the Central Board of PERSILAT.
13. Pencak Silat competition
In the circle of PERSILAT, since 1996 there were 4 categories of Achievement Sports Pencak Silat competition, namely : Tanding, Tunggal, Ganda and Beregu (Match, Single, Double / Sparred, and Team). Tanding is a competition of Pencak Silat between two competitors from different team. Tunggal is an interesting ostentation of Pencak Silat of PERSILATâ€™s standard juruses conducted by a pesilat of a team. Ganda is an artistic and effective free fight play of Pencak Silat between two pesilats from the same team. Beregu is a presentation of artistic and effective Pencak Silat carried out by three pesilats from the same team.
14. Pencak Silat dimensions
Pencak Silat has two dimensions which are un-separated, namely the spiritual dimension and physical dimension. Spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat is the teaching of noble mind and character, whereas its physical dimension is the techniques of Pencak Silat which are variegated and different.Â Each ofÂ which has its own characteristic and way of performance. As physical dimension, Pencak Silat consists of two subsystems, that is subsystem of structure and subsystem of performance or process, which can be called as Pencak Silat structure and Pencak Silat performance. Pencak Silat structure consists of 4 groups of techniques, that is positioning, stepping movement, attacking and defending. Pencak Silat performance is the process of Pencak Silat according to its norms and by using tricks.
15. Pencak Silat identity
The identity of Pencak Silat as a self-defense system is determined by 4 principle things as a unity. Cumulatively, this identity showing the genuineness, intactness, originality and uniqueness of Pencak Silat. Those 4 principle things are :
Firstly, is the culture of the Nusantara communities as the source of its origin and its values as well as its specific pattern, either its spiritual dimension or its physical dimension.
Secondly, is the teaching of noble mind and character , which is the specificÂ moral teaching of the Nusantara communities, as spiritual base and usage motivation source of Pencak Silat.
Thirdly, is the substance of Pencak Silat itself which has 4Â aspects as a unity, that is mental-spiritual, self-defense, art and sports aspects, which areÂ the manifestation of Pencak Silat values. So, these 4 aspects of Pencak Silat can also be called as the aspects of ethic, technique, aesthetic and athletic.
Fourthly, is the norm arranging the performance of Pencak Silat ethically, technically, aesthetically and athletically, which is the basic rule relatingÂ to the enforcement custom and manner of Pencak Silat. This norm containsÂ moral teaching as well as values and aspects of Pencak Silat as a unity. This basic ruleÂ contains norms of ethical, logical, aesthetic and athletic.
According to its identity, holistically Pencak Silat can be definedÂ as a system of patterned movement which has the values of self-control, self-defense, beauty and harmony movement as well as the forming of physical adroitness, fitness and endurance according toÂ the sublimity of the values of Pencak Silat. All of them are based on the teaching of noble mind and character and the culture of the Nusantara communities which esteem highly the religious and social morality.
16. Pencak Silat organizations
In accordance with their membership and activity scale, the organizations of Pencak Silat are grouped into 3 categories, that is the perguruan Pencak Silat, the national organization of Pencak Silat and the international organization of Pencak Silat.
Perguruan is the smallest organization of Pencak Silat. Other names of perguruan in Indonesia are paguron (West Java and Central Java) and padepokan (Central Java). In a certain country outside the native countries of Pencak Silat, perguruan is also called Pencak Silat institution, school or club. Perguruans as organization have members consisting of the citizens of the countries where those perguruans exist.
Perguruans as organization have members consisting of the citizens of the countries where those perguruans exist. The total members of a perguruans may be only several persons and my be hundreds or thousands persons. The spreading area of a perguruan can possibly be in a small district only but there is also in such area which covers a great part of its country.
The meaning of perguruan Pencak Silat is often confused with aliran Pencak Silat, whereas aliran is a style or arts to perform Pencak Silat, which is coloured by local or ethnic culture of the Nusantara communities. Perguruan is anÂ institution which educates, teachs and trains someone to comprehend, to absorb fully and to apply the spiritual dimension of Pencak Silat and to master its physical dimension along with its styles and tricks of performance.
Viewed from the branch of Pencak Silat to be taught, there are four kinds of perguruan, that is : perguruan of Mental-Spiritual, perguruan of Self-defense, perguruan of Artistic and perguruan of Sports Pencak Silat. The perguruan of self-defense Pencak Silat is the most of all, some of which teach supernatural mighty power.
Viewed from the management and method of education, teaching and training, there are three kinds of perguruan, that is traditional perguruan, with monologue method and unwritten management, modern perguruan with dialogue method and modern management, and transitional perguruans which combines those two mentioned characteristics.
There are perguruans which teach the same aliran Pencak Silat and there are also perguruans which teach the combination of various alirans variedly, either of domestic or foreign alirans.
The implanting of philosophical values and mental-spiritual education in all perguruans Pencak Silat is not carried out specifically but is inculcated while training is held in the form of wejangan (advice), taking the oath of allegiance or the loyalty to the perguruan. In conformity with the demand of social development which becomes more rational, all of the traditional and transitional perguruans Pencak Silat will develop and change into modern ones with professional characteristics of management and education.
Basically, the purpose of the perguruans is to perpetuate, develop and socialize Pencak Silat and its values. The achievement of these goals is mainly obtained through educational efforts and activities, and promotion.
National Pencak Silat organization is an organization whose activities scale involve the whole area of a country. Members of the national organization of Pencak Silat consist of the perguruans in the respective country which voluntarily declare to be members of it. The status of such perguruan as a member of that organization is relatively independent.
The national organization of Pencak Silat has written statutes and rules, which among other, compels its membersâ€™ perguruans adapt their own ones with the statutes and rules of the respective national organization of Pencak Silat. The status of the national organization of Pencak Silat in different countries is of the same level.
Generally, the national organization of Pencak Silat has 3 objectives as a unity. Firstly, is to unify and develop its members. Secondly,Â is to coordinate and lead its members dealing with its efforts to perpetuate, develop, socialize and increase the image of Pencak Silat and its values. And thirdly,Â is to make Pencak Silat as a means to build up good quality of human mankind, mental-spiritually as well as physically.
The only one international organization of Pencak Silat is PERSILAT, acronym of Persekutuan Pencak Silat Antarabangsa or the International Pencak Silat Federation. PERSILAT was founded in Jakarta on March 11th, 1980.
The founding of PERSILAT was based on three main objectives, namely
a.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â To push and support the establishment of national Pencak Silat organizations in the countries where Pencak Silat is being developed.
b.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â To support and direct the development and dissemination of Pencak Silat in various countries.
c.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â To build union and brotherhood in the circle of Pencak Silat communities of various countries, among others through championships and meetings.
Since the moment of its founding (1980) until the year of 1983, PERSILAT was managedÂ collectively by a PresidiumÂ consisting of 9 members as representative of IPSI, PERSISI and Malaysian Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports (MMCYS), each 3 persons.
The principles of PERSILAT are brotherhood, family spirit, unity and mutual respect, and not discriminate nationality and religion, The quality of PERSILAT is non-political.
The vision of PERSILAT is to make Pencak Silat as an attractive and popular sport throughout the world.
The mission of PERSILAT is to make Pencak Silat as competing/official sport at SEA Games, Asian Games, Commonwealth Games and Olympic Games..
PERSILAT has four levels of membership, that is : the Founding Member, the Affiliated Member, the Associated Member and the Junior Member.
Level of the Board of PERSILAT consist of Federation Central Board and Federation Regional Board. Federation Central Board is the board of the federation elected and determined by the Founding Members of PERSILAT in the PERSILAT Congress. The office tenure ofÂ the Federation Central Board is 4 years. Federation Regional Board consists of 5 regions, namely : Asia, Europe, America, Pacific and Africa.
The highest institution for PERSILAT and its whole members is the Congress of PERSILAT. This congress is arranged once in 4 years at a location determined by the previous PERSILAT Congress and to be attended by Central Board, representative of the Founding Members, the Regional Boards, Affiliated Members, Associated Members, and Junior Members.
In 1991 the third Congress of PERSILAT determined a code of conduct of the world wide Pencak Silat man, which was called Triprasetya Pesilat. In 1996 the fourth Congress of PERSILAT changed it and determined the new one which was called Ikrar Pesilat, which meansÂ promise declaration of Pencak Silat man to himself.
17. Pencak Silat performance
The performance ofÂ Pencak Silat is the carrying out of the positional and movement techniques of Self-defense Pencak Silat in the form of positioning, stepping movement, attacking and defending coordinately, tactically, effectively, and practically, either in their each form or in the formation of jurus. The said performance is conducted by using and developingÂ various tricks creatively to eliminate the inherent weakness and to develop the inherent strength of each technique for achieving one goal, namely a competitive superiority against the opponent.
The basic rule which regulate the performance of Pencak Silat ethically, technically, aesthetically and athletically as an integrated unity is called Pencak Silat norm. This norm consists of ethical norm for Mental-Spiritual Pencak Silat, logical norm for Self-defense Pencak Silat, aesthetic norm for Artistic Pencak Silat and athletic norm for Sports Pencak Silat.
18. Pencak Silat salute
Physically Pencak SilatÂ salute or â€œSalam Pencak Silatâ€ is expressed by joining together the two palms of hand and pose it close to the chest. Psychologically Pencak Silat salute means honoring each other from the deepest heartÂ based on friendship and peace spirit. This action consitute Â a symbol and signalÂ of peace and friendship Â in the circle of the community of Pencak Silat.
An introduction or a meeting of someone with his fellow man is preceded by executing Pencak Silat salute and then sake hands. The same deed is also executed before they separate one from the other.
19. Pencak Silat structure
The structure of Pencak Silat is a composition of variegated and different self-defense techniques with their own characteristics which are grouped in 4 components as a unity, namely the components of positioning, stepping movement, attacking and defending. The whole techniques inside each component and amongst components are interdependent, inter-supporting,Â and inter-saving, and have functional relation one to the other based on a certain pattern for self-defense purpose against opponentâ€™s physical threat.
Positioning is a combination and coordination of effective and practical positions of trestle, body position and hand position. It is an alert positional techniques in facing against the opponentÂ Positioning techniques, viewed from the way, consist of upright, middle and low techniques; viewed from the usage, consist of opened and closed techniques ; and viewed from the trestles, consist of : parallel front, turning body, front askew, facing middle, back cross, siding middle, front cross, one leg lifted up, front cross leg sit, front double cross legged sit and back double cross legged sit techniques.
Stepping movement is a moving techniques of the foot for removal and changing position to approach or to evade the opponent in order to get a favorable position. Technically, it is a combination and coordination of effective and practical foot movement, body position and hand position. Tactically, the stepping movement techniques, viewed from the stepping direction consist of : backward, back left askew, leftward, front left askew, forward, front right askew, rightward, and backward askew techniques, viewed from the way of stepping consist of lift up, shift, shove, jump, and twist techniques, and viewed from the pattern of stepping consist of straight, zigzag, horse shoe, triangle, rectangle, bend, and double techniques.
Attacking is a technical and tactical effort to unnerve the opponent or to overtake the opponentâ€™s initiative to attack. Considered from its techniques, attacking involve 10 techniques, namely : beating (hitting), Â scratching, elbowing, kicking, kneeing, catching, throwing down, dropping down,Â locking, and rolling. There are 14 kinds of hitting techniques, that is : stab, pop, knock, tap, box, step, peck, whip, arch, circle, cut, remove, forward, and side techniques ; 6 kinds of elbowing techniques, that is stab, pop, upside, outside, backward, and back ;Â 9 kinds of kicking techniques, that is spur, forward, side, arch, sickle, hoe, circle, horse, and back techniques ; 2 kinds of kneeing techniques, that is front and side techniques ; 2 kinds of catching techniques which can be done from inside and outside, that is arm/hand and leg/foot techniques ; 4 kinds of throwing down techniques, that is foot, leg, hip, and back techniques ; 4 kinds of dropping down (topping) techniques, which can be done in upright and lie position, that is sweep, hook, bob, and snip techniques ; and 5 kinds of locking techniques, that is wobble, three-points, arm/hand,Â leg/foot, and shoulders and neck locking.
Defending is a technical and tactical effort to fail the opponentâ€™s attack. Considered on its character, defending consists of reactive and proactive defending. Considered from its techniques, reactive defense involves parrying, avoiding, evading, dodging, escaping (releasing) and attenuating, each of which has its own descriptive details. There are 13 kinds of parrying techniques, that is meet/pick, stick,Â outside, inside, pop, squeeze, cut, sway, bend, ward off, wag, smash, and elbow techniques. While proactive defending or interception defending involves hitting interception, kicking interception, kneeing interception, catching interception, beating (throwing down) interception, dropping interception and locking interception.
Positioning and stepping movement can be categorized as non-fighting Pencak Silat, while attacking and defending can be categorized as fighting Pencak Silat. In other words it can be said that the process form of non-fighting Pencak Silat is positioning and stepping movement, while the process form of fighting Pencak Silat is attacking and defending.
20. Pencak Silat values
The spiritual and physical dimensions of Pencak Silat contain 4 values as a unity, that is, ethical, technical, aesthetic and athletic values.Â The manifestation of those 4 values are 4 aspects of Pencak Silat as a unity, namely mental-spiritual, self-defense, art and sports aspects.
Ethical value is a value of noble mind and character which implicitly and inherently contains religion, social and cultural values which are glorified by the communities. The value of ethic is usefulÂ for the purpose of peace and friendship among human beings, among groups of human beings and among communities.
Technical value is a value of effective, efficient and productive. This value is useful for the sake of fighting to defend oneself.
Aesthetic value is a value of beauty, conformity and harmony. This value is usefulÂ for the purpose of entertainment and pleasure.
Athletic value is a value of sports which is useful for the purpose of developing physical health, fitness and endurance.
The said 4Â values have tight relation with socialÂ and individual moral ideal in the circle of Nusantara communities. Ethical and technical values refer to the fulfillment of need and interest of security, whereas aesthetic and athletic values refer to the fulfillment of need and interest of prosperity. Both involve spiritual and physical side.
Ethical, technical, aesthetic and athletic values as a unity, besides constitute the values of Pencak Silat also constituteÂ the unique pattern and specialty of Pencak Silat originatingÂ from the culture of Nusantara communities. The four mentioned values as a unity is one of the components of the identity of Pencak Silat.
The word Pendekar came from Minangkabau area, and then is also construed or cinsidered coming from the wordsÂ Pandega, Pandika, Pandita and Pandai Akal. Thereby, literally Pendekar means a leader (Pandega), master (Pandika), holy man (Pandita) and clever/smart man (Pandai Akal).
In general, the leaders of perguruan Pencak Silat are considered as Pendekar. According to its original conception, Pendekar is the status of mental-spiritual and social maturity in assuming high quality attitude, in self-controlled behavior, in enforcing the Pencak Silat discipline and in fulfilling the noble obligations imposed upon human beings as Gods being, individual being, social being and universal being. Pendekar is the highest status related with the grade of skill in performing Pencak Silat according to its norm and principles or the fact of applying the philosophical doctrine of Pencak Silat consistently and consequently. Pendekar is a figure who can set an example in using of Pencak Silat as ilmu padi.
In a traditional perguruan, a Pendekar is looked at as a holy man or a man with supernatural power. By the society, Pendekar is looked at as a prominent figure by whom to seek shelter not only physically but in the very first placeÂ mentally and spiritually. His words are to be trusted and his conducts are to be taken as an example. Pendekar is a figure who can put ilmu paddy into practice as an example in his daily life, living course and social interaction.
In the era ofÂ colonialization, this term of pendekar, which was specific term of Pencak Silat, was nationalized and used by the pioneer figures of the independence ofÂ Indonesia, which generally means an example leader and struggler whoÂ obtains his sublime goals by using sublime ways.
Pesilat is a person who ables to comprehend and to perform kindly and correctly the various techniques of Pencak Silat according to its norms along with its tricks and styles, and all at once also ables to comprehend and to put into practice kindly and correctly the substances and values of the teaching of noble mind an character as well as the code of conduct of Pesilat.
Pesilat is aÂ man who love, loyal and dedicate himself for the advance of Pencak Silat, and make Pencak Silat as his personal pride and as a means to build his personality, spiritually and physically as well.
A Pesilat is obliged to understand kindly and correctly the teaching of noble mind and character, and put it into practice by bringing forward sublime attitude, deed and behavior in his daily life and intercourse.
In connection with the ideal to build peace and friendship among human beings in the framework to build social welfare among nations throughout the world, the Congress of PERSILAT in 1991 and then completed in 1994, had determined and legalizedÂ the code of ethic of Pesilat, called â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€ or â€œthe Pledges of Pesilatâ€. According to that code of ethic, a Pesilat as an individual is obliged to have noble mind and character, as a man is obliged to honor his fellow man, and loves friendship and peace, and always thinks and acts positively, creatively and dynamic, and asÂ a knight is obliged to uphold truth, honesty and justice, and is always resilientÂ in facing any ordeal and temptation, and is responsible for his words and deeds.
The complete declaration of Ikrar Pesilat iwhich is consisted of 5 points of self-promise declaration, is as follows :
A Pesilat is an individual who has noble mind and character.
A Pesilat is a man who honors his fellow man, and loves friendship and peace.
A Pesilat is a man who always thinks and acts positively, creatively and dynamic.
A Pesilat is a knight who upholds truth, honesty and justice, and is always resilient Â in facing any ordeal and temptation.
A Pesilat is a knight who is always responsible for his words and deeds.
Included into Pesilat are they who involved directly in the idealizing, thinking, writing, efforts and activities concerning and in connection with the perpetuation, development, dissemination and increasing the image of Pencak Silat along with its values, and make Pencak Silat and its values as a means to form high quality human being, either physically or spiritually.
Literaly the meaning of saudara is brotherÂ and sister. Brother and Sister can be abbreviated with Br. and Sr. Socially and culturally it means predicate in calling someone in a kinship social intercourse among the relatively same age persons.
24. Sesepuh or Pinisepuh
Sesepuh andÂ Pinisepuh are local names which have the same meanings, but Pinisepuh is impressed has a higher level or grade then Sesepuh. The two terms has the same meanings with Guru Besar and Maha Guru, but is more emphazised to the age, that is approximately 75 years up. Socially and culturally these terms means the eldest man or woman who is very appriciated and honored because of his age, former position and role, knowledges, experiences, science, benevolence, attitude, deed and behavior (manner).
So, sesepuh and pinisepuh can be called also as Senior Guru Besar, Senior Maha Guru and Senior Pendekar
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ABOUT â€œIKRAR PESILATâ€
â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€, which was determined and legalized by the 1994 Congress of PERSILAT in Jakarta, is an ethic code of the corps of Pencak Silat man, named Pesilat, throughout the world,. It is the completing of â€œTriprasetya Pesilatâ€, legalized by the 1991 Congress of PERSILAT, also in Jakarta, by adding the points of pledge from 3 to 5.
â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€ is a promise declaration of Pesilat to himself to fulfill his sublime obligation. The declaration is made by him in his capacities and qualities as an individual, as a man and as a knight. The promise made to himself as an individual is expressed in the first pledge (ikar), to himself as a man in the second and third pledges, and to himself as a knight in the fourth and fifth pledges.
The substance of â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€ is a series of selected sublime obligations contained in the teaching of noble mind and character which is obliged to be understood well and truly, and to be put into practice persistently, consequently and consistently by every Pesilat in his daily life and intercouse. The understanding of that substance is carried out by reading, learning by heart and expressing continuously and constantly, especially in important agendas presented by numerous Pesilats.. Understanding by such way has the goal to implant the spirit of â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€ and all at once to strengthen the corps spirit of Pesilat. The complete formulation of â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€™ contended in the book of the 2004 PERSILAT Constitution is as follows :
1. A Pesilat is an individual who has noble mind and character.
2. A Pesilat is a man who honors his fellow man, and loves friendship and peace.
3. A Pesilat is a man who always thinks and acts positively, creatively and dynamic.
4. A Pesilat is a knight who upholds truth, honesty and justice, and is always resilient in facing any ordeal and temptation.
5. A Pesilat is a knight who is always responsible for his words and deeds.
In this explanation, the meaning of ikrar or pledge is a sublime obligation of man to always bring forward sublime attitude, deed and behavior in his intercourse with his fellow man. The meaning of Pesilat is a man who love, loyal and dedicate himself for the advance of Pencak Silat, and make Pencak Silat as his personal pride and as a means to build his personality, spiritually and physically as well. The meaning of ethic code or code of conduct is a short formulation of a series of sublime obligations which has to be put into practice persistently, consistently and consequently.. The meaning of corps is a group of man having similar fate, struggle and goal, and having similar desire to always unite and being in a solid unity based on brotherhood and family spirit. The meaning of an individual or personal is a human being having special personality and unique characteristics, which is different with the other human beings. The meaning of a man is a human being having on one side personal rights, freedom and interest, and on the other side, obligations, responsibility and stimulation of social dedication. The meaning of a knight is a man who always consistent, consequent and accountable in bringing forward his attitude, deed, and behavior, prominently in the effort to achieve the goal of international life and intercourse, that is to build eternal peace and friendship among nations, and justly wealth of all human beings throughout the world.
Having noble mind and character means that Pesilat as an individual must be aware that the existence, life and potentials of man are gift of God Almighty that must be developed to get maximum benefit for himself privately, to serve the interest of his fellow man, and the preservation of the ecosystem. In such connection, a Pesilat is obliged to thank and profess his belief in God Almighty beside consistently and consequently living up to His teachings. His spiritual is of noble mind and character. Mind is the dynamic spiritual dimension of man, made up of the dynamics of thinking, sensing and willing, while character means moral or ethic and noble means sublime. Thus being a noble mind and character, for a Pesilat means always elaborate his thinking, considerate his sensing, stimulate his willing and perform his character through his controlled attitude, deed and behavior. In other words, typical for a man of noble mind and character is the ability to always restrain oneself in oneâ€™s private life as well as in oneâ€™s social and ecological life. Such are the criteria for an individual of high prestige.
It means that a Pesilat must has sublime willing, sensing, thinking and character, and their realization in the form of controlled attitude, deed and behavior. The realization of having noble mind and character is the capability to always control oneself and has to always understand well and truly, and to uphold the teaching of noble mind and character in his daily life and intercourse.
Honoring fellow man means that a Pesilat as a man must be aware that a man always need other men in his life. His progress and prosperity are acquired with the help of and by working together with others. Even at and after his death, any and all arrangements are taken care of by others. In togetherness, men have value and can provide better in all their needs. In view thereof, a Pesilat has the obligation to uphold the values of humanity by respecting one another, which shall be evidenced in attitude, deed and behavior of love for friendship and peace in any place, at any time and under any circumstance whatsoever. Compliance with such obligation means to participate in realizing and abiding the universal order based upon freedom, peace and justice.
Inherent to the word honoring, is tolerant to the desire, need, opinion and interest of the others, having sense of equal and sense of helping each other. Thus, honoring fellow man is the base for a Pesilat to create peace and friendship with his fellow man in his own country as well as his fellow men from the other countries, which in turn, will be able to create and maintain eternal good relationship and intercourse among nations all over the world. Honoring one another, and loving peace and friendship is a way to create wealth of nations throughout the world.
Thinking and acting positively, creatively and dynamic means that every Pesilat as a man must always think and act the best, by which he has numerous possibilities to achieve advance, good achievement and success, to get many friends, to create and maintain peace, and to give benefit for the public. Thinking and acting as such has to become a habit and daily behavior for every Pesilat. By such thinking and acting a Pesilat will be avoided from various personal handicaps and problems, and any other things which can damage his personal prestige..
Upholding truth, honesty and justice as well as always resilient in facing any ordeal and temptation, means that every Pesilat as a knight must be aware that truth, honest and justice are the basic preconditions for every man to achieve success in his endeavor, either it is carried out by himself or jointly with the others. Which means that any form of endeavors must be made truthfully, honestly and justly. If not, it will bring about restlessness, worry, jealousy, suspicion and conflict, which in turn can break friendship and peace.
In such connection, a Pencak Silat man is obliged to maintain and uphold truth, honesty and justice, which must be started by himself, in line with the mental attitude of a true knight. This means that he is obliged to always be truthful, honest and just in his attitude, deed and behavior by always staunchly resisting any ordeal and temptations, especially to carry out deviations or transgressions, and always believe in God, to be noble in mind and character, respectful toward his fellow man , and love friendship and peace.. He also has to always alert and anticipative against the worst possibilities. He must always to be ahead to the challenges. Ordeal and temptation are prominent handicap which can make human being fail in achieving their goals or aims. Un-overcome ordeal and temptation can damage human prestige. The heaviest ordeals and temptations for every man, included Pesilat, are when those ones have relation with the effort to uphold truth, honesty and justice.
To be responsible for his words and deeds, means that every Pesilat must be always careful in pronouncing and doing. Usually, words and deeds are used by public to evaluate the quality of man. The problem is that the criteria used by public is not similar. In other words, good and bad are relative things. What is said well by someone, is sometime said bad by the others. So, every Pesilat must be always ready to face that possibility and must be responsible for his words and deeds, although those ones are not bad for him. It means that either good or bad, a Pesilat definitely must be responsible for all he has expressed, especially what he has pronounced and what he has done.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLOSURE
From all of the above mentioned explanations, it can be concluded as follows :
1. â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€, consisting of five pledges as a unity, constitute the selected important elements of the teaching of noble mind and character, which is also referred to as the teaching of self-control and the teaching of universal morals.
2. Putting into practice â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€ is fundamentally the same as putting philosophical or teaching values of universal morals into practice, which is obligatory for every Pesilat in his respective capacities and qualities :
a. As an individual in the framework of increasing his own private quality and prestige.
b. As a man in the framework of upholding the values of just and civilized humanity.
c. As a knight in the framework of consistently, consequently, discipline and responsibly the fulfilling of his personal obligations as well as his obligations to humanity.
Such is the brief explanation of â€œIkrar Pesilatâ€. Hopefully the significance, the soul, the spirit and the aims thereof can penetrate into the mind of all Pesilats, wherever they are, and in the best possible manner put into practice in their private, social and ecological life as well as in their international intercourse.You might also like: