Bokator or more formally, Labok Katao, Khmer martial art is possibly the predecessor of all Southeast Asian kickboxing styles. It is easy to believe that Bokator was the close quarter combat system used by the ancient armies of Angkor. The modern practioner of martial arts will recognise the more military style of Bokator.
Angkoren Warriors will have been a key factor in enabling a succession of Angkorean Kings to dominate South East Asia for more than 600 years from 800 AD. Bokator may have indirectly held much of the responsibility for Cambodia’s domination during that era. Popular belief is that Jayavarman VII, the ruler of the Khmer Empire, was a practitioner of Bokator.
Unlike kick boxing, which is a sport fighting art, Bokator was a soldierâ€™s art, designed to be used on the battlefield. It can be considered a complete martial art, using a diverse array of elbow and knee strikes, shin kicks, submissions and ground fighting.
When fighting, Bokator practitioners still wear the uniforms of ancient Khmer armies. A kroma (scarf) is folded around their waist and blue and red silk cords called sangvar day, are tied around the combatants head and biceps. In the past it is said that the cords were enchanted to increase strength, although now they are just ceremonial.
The art contains 341 different styles based on the study of life in nature. For example horse, bird, dragon, eagle, crane. Each style contains several tecniques.
Reference; David P. Chandler, History of Cambodia. Chandler does not mention Bokator but does provide the best available picture of Angkor and early Cambodian history. Angkor was a city state of about 1,000,00 people when London was a population of 50,000. It was located in what is now north – western Cambodia.
Angkor was a wealthy empire that dominated South East Asia from 800 AD to 1400 AD. It was a Monarchy which ruled a vast heirachy of Officials, Elite, peasants and slaves and built some of the most spectaular buildings in the ancient world such as the famous Angkor Wat. The Ankorens were often at war, and often with their Cham neighbours from what is now the area surrounding Saigon in South Vietnam. Warriors fought hand to hand. Given this scenario is it easy to assume that some martial art was developed at this time.
The name Bokator is itself possibly an indicator of the age of Bokator. Pronounced bok – u -tow’ (tow as in ‘towel), ‘tow’ translates as Lion. There have never been lions in South East Asia. However lions were found in western India. Indian culture and philosophy was the major influence in Angkor.
All the great buildings of Ankgor are inscribed in Sanskrit and are devoted to Hindu Gods, notably Vishnu and Shiva. Religious life was dominated by Brahmins. The concept of the lion and of a martial art named ‘striking a lion’ will probably have coincided with the reign of the Angkorean Kings and during this Indian influence. The influence of the Brahmins diminished with the rise of Buddhism almost a thousand years ago.
Unfortunately, during the Pol Pot regime (1975-1979) those who practiced traditional arts were either systematically exterminated by the Khmer Rouge, fled as refugees or stopped teaching and hid. After the Khmer Rouge Regime, the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia began and the martial arts were completely outlawed.
During this time San Kim Sean had to flee Cambodia accused by the Vietnamese of teaching Hapkido and Bokator, which he was, and starting to form an army, which he wasn’t.
Once in America he started teaching Hapkido at a local YMCA in Houston, Texas and later moved to Long Beach, California. After living in the United Sates and teaching and promoting Hapkido for a while. He found that no one had ever heard of Bokator. He left the United States in 1992 and returned home to Cambodia to give Boxkator back to his people and to do his best to make Bokator known to the world.
In 2001 moved back to Phnom Penh and after getting permission from the the new king began teaching Bokator to local youth. That same year in the hopes of bringing all of the remaining living masters together he began traveling the country, seeking out Bokator lakrus, or instructors, who had survived the regime. The few men he found were old ranging from sixty to ninety years of age and weary of 30 years of oppression; many were afraid to teach the art openly. After much persuasion and with government approval, the former masters relented, and Sean effectively reintroduced Boxkator to the Cambodian people.
The first ever National Bokator competition was held in Phnom Penh at the Olympic Stadium, from September 26 through the 29, 2006. The competition comprised of 20 lakrus leading teams from 9 provinces.
- Duck (thiea)
- Crab (kdam)
- Horse (saeh)
- Bird (preap)
- Dragon (neak)
- Monkey King (sdach swaa)
- Lion (thao)
- Elephant (domrei)
- Crocodile (krapeau)
Bokator Khmer: The Ancient Form of Cambodian Martial Arts :
â€œWe can fight standing up.â€ Explained San Kim Sean, Grand Master of Khmer Bokator. At more than sixty years old, he looked as if he was in his forties, but moved like a man much younger. He threws a kick at me, similar to the round house, used in Khmer Boxing. The kick missed, and his kicking leg landed to the side of my body. With the ease of forty years of martial arts practice, he shifted all of his weight forward, onto his kicking leg. Not more than a few inches to my side, he hooked his rear foot around, and kicked me square on the jaw.
â€œThe dragon whips his tail.â€ He said, sounding like a Bruce Lee movie. Next, he droped to his knees, and executed an elbow strike in an upward motion, to my solar plexus. â€œWe can fight on our knees.â€ He said. He droped to the ground and trapped the kick I had thrown at his face. â€œWe can fight from sitting.â€ Next, he prostrated his body, and dragged my ankle, causing me to topple to the ground. â€œ We can even fight laying down.â€ He laughed.
Khmer Bokator is a very complete martial art, which uses strikes, drags, trapping, and locking for both offense and defense. In Khmer Bokator, the entire body is used as a weapon. Many martial arts use a head but, but some of the techniques which San Kim Sean showed me used the jaw and even the shoulder muscle as weapons.
â€œThe lion has fangs.â€ He explained. â€œWe also use fangs in our fighting.â€ San Kim Sean made a fist, then extended his pointer finger, bending it at the second joint. With pinpoint accuracy, he used this â€œfangâ€ to stab me in the pressure point behind the clavicle. Needless to say, it was quite painful. â€œIf we train long enough, we can make the finger go through the flesh.â€ He said with a likable, but sadistic grin. â€œAnd then we can rip out that bone.â€ He showed me how the finger would extended, wrap around the collarbone, and then how hi hole body would be used to jerk it out.
â€œDo you believe that your art I better than Khmer Boxing?â€ I asked. â€œOf course.â€ Answered San Kim Sean, without hesitation. â€œDo you mean that one of your students could get in the ring with the champion, Eh Phou Thoung right now and win?â€ I asked, skeptically. â€œMy students would never b allowed to fight in the ring.â€ He explained. â€œWe are trained to kill.â€
San Kim Sean asked one of his young students to attack him in a boxing stance. When the student threw a punch, San Kim Sean countered with an elbow strike to the studentâ€™s throat. â€œKILL!â€ shouted San Kim Sean. The student threw a second punch, this time, San Kim Sean stabbed the student in the throat with his fingers. â€œKILL!â€ he yelled again. The student kicked, and San Kim Sean hit the studentâ€™s thigh with his knee, knocking the student to the ground.
The student leapt to his feet, and clinched with the teacher, hitting him with knee strikes. San Kim Sean crisscrossed his forearms over the students throat, and, like a pair of scissors, he crushed the studentâ€™s windpipe with his wrist bones. â€œKill!â€ he yelled again. Next, he rotated the wrist bones away from the studentâ€™s throat, but careful to keep the studentâ€™s neck locked in hi vice-like forearms. â€œThis one not kill.â€ He explained. Pulling the student in close, he smashed his shoulder up into the studentâ€™s jaw. It was obvious that if he had done it full force, the student would have been knocked unconscious. Finally, he drove the heel of his foot into the inside of the studentâ€™s thigh, driving him to the canvass again.
â€œYou see?â€ He asked me. â€œYou would never be allowed to o any of that in a boxing ring. But it is very effective.â€ The student returned to his practice. He would leap I the air, and kicking the heavy bag with both feet. Each time he landed, he would be lying in the ground, in a controlled stance, ready to fight.
â€œThat boy has only been with me one year.â€ Said San Kim Sean, with pride. â€œBut he already knows three hundred techniques. And now, he can help me teach the other students.â€ San Kim Sean explained to me why it was so important to him to pass on the art.
Bokator is the ancient Khmer martial art, the predecessor of Brodal Serey (Khmer Free Boxing). Today, the name, Brodal Serey has been lost to the world, having been replaced by the word Muay Thai. â€œThe Thais stole our art.â€ Say many Khmers, who believe that the bas-reliefs carved on the walls of Angkor Wat temple prove that the origin of Khmer Boxing predates Muay Thai.
While the name may have been stolen, the art of Khmer Boxing is very much alive, and thriving as a professional sport, enjoyed all around the world. This, unfortunately is not the case for the much older art of Bokator Khmer. This art is nearly unknown, even in Cambodia. â€œOutside of Cambodia, the only thing people know is Angkor Wat.â€ Said San Kim Sean â€œThey donâ€™t know about our martial art.â€
Bokator Khmer uses colored Krama (traditional Khmer scarves) instead of belts. The art contains ten animal styles. The five white krama animal forms include: king monkey, lion, elephant, apsara (traditional Hindu sacred nymph), and crocodile. The green krama forms include: duck, crab, horse, bird, and dragon.
San Kim Sean began training in Bokator Khmer when he was just thirteen years old. According to him, even at that time the art was not very common. â€œOnly a few old men knew the art.â€ It was still practiced in some of the provinces, but was unknown in the capital. His uncle, a friend of his father, taught him to fight with his hands. Another â€œuncleâ€ taught him to use the long staff. And yet another, taught him to use the two traditional Khmer long swords, called dao.
San Kim Sean was always interested in martial arts, so he practiced Khmer boxing for three years. Later, he earned belts in Judo, Karate, and became only one of three Khmers to earn a blackbelt in Hopkido. â€œI was third dan.â€ He told me.
Unfortunately for him, 1975, the year he became an instructor of Hop Kido, was also the year that Phnom Penh fell to the Khmer Rouge, under the leadership of Pol Pot. The city was ordered to evacuate, and the entire country was collectivized, forced to do backbreaking physical labor, with only a few hours of sleep per day, and very little food.
â€œI donâ€™t have to tell you the Pol Pot time was bad.â€ Said San Kim Sean. â€œEveryone knows.â€ He shook his head sadly. â€œMy group began with 10,000-13,000 people. Two years later, only five hundred were still alive. They were either murdered or died of hunger.â€ Two of San Kim Seanâ€™s children died at the hands of the Khmer Rouge.
Although everyone suffered, and anyone, including Khmer Rouge soldiers and cadre were potential victims of execution, certain groups were singled out for extreme persecution and extermination. Among them were the Cham, Cambodian Muslims, Chinese, Vietnamese, educated people, people with classes, anyone with knowledge of English or French, the literate, artisans, and skilled workers. Pol Pot had declared a Year Zero, as a symbol of his desire to break with the past. To this end, he hunted down and killed masters of traditional Khmer arts including singing, dancing, and martial arts.
â€œAll of my students and training bothers died.â€ He told me. â€œAnd, I was the only Hopkido instructor who suvived.â€ In 1979, The Khmer Rouge regime fell to an invasion by the Vietcong. San Kim Sean came back to Phnom Penh, and began teaching Hop Kido. The Vietnamese regime, which, arguably, was only slightly better than the Khmer Rouge, prohibited the Cambodians from practicing martial arts. â€œI was teaching in secret. But some Khmer person who was jealous of me, turned me into the Vietnamese authorities.â€
The Vietnamese said that San Kim Sean was trying to build an army or had some other subversive goal in mind. He would have been jailed, but he and his wife escaped to a refuge camp in Thailand. They spent one year in Nokor Siclium camp, where his wife gave birth to a daughter, named Bopa. Eventually, in 1980, their paperwork came through, and the family was allowed to relocate to the USA, settling first in Houston, Texas, where San Kim Sean found a good job at the airport.
He also taught Hop Kido to the Khmer children at the YMCA. Life was good for San Kim Sean and his family, but he missed his culture. On a vacation to the Khmer community in Long Beach, California, he was amazed at the Khmerness of the place.
â€œThe shops had Khmer writing on them. I saw women wearing sarongs. They had Khmer restaurants.â€ Laughed San Kim Sean. â€œI said, hey, this is my country.â€ And so, he quit his job, and moved to Long Beach. Eventually, he found work dubbing Khmer voice-overs on Chinese action movies. And, he continued teaching Hop Kido.
â€œThis is all very interesting.â€ I said, and I meant it. Here was a man who had overcome great odds, for both the love of martial art and the love of his people. â€œBut, your story is all the way up to 1990 and you donâ€™t seem to be teaching Bokator to anyone.â€
â€œThat will come later.â€Â San Kim Sean laughed. â€œI have to tell you the whole story first.â€, To be a good martial arts student, you have to have patience. â€œI took my Hop Kido students all over for competitions. And, I never once heard the words Bokator Khmer. In fact, no one knew anything about any Khmer martial arts at all.â€
By this time, San Kim Sean was a tenth degree black belt in Hop Kido. â€œI began to wonder.â€ He told me. â€œWhy am I out doing all of this advertising for a Korean art?â€
He explained to me that Bokator Khmer is an ancient art, predating even the 1000 year-old carvings at Angkor Wat. King Jayavaraman VII, the creator of Angkor Wat is depicted in a stance, with the Khmer short sword, the dao. â€œDo you know why he was such a good king and why he kept Cambodia safe? It was because he was a martial artist. He knew Bokator Khmer.â€
â€œAt that time, there were no rockets, no guns, only fighting swords and hands and feet. And the Khmers could win because our soldiers were trained in Bokator.â€
San Kim Sean explained why the martial art, which was once so proud and strong, had already faded into near extinction before the Pol Pot regime. â€œThe masters never taught all of their art to a student. They always held back about ten percent, in case a student ever attacked them.â€
If each progressive generation learned ten percent less than the previous generation, it is no wonder that the Khmer martial arts were on a downward slide.
â€œKhmer young people donâ€™t even know their own history. They donâ€™t know about our greatness in the past, the ancient arts which were taught by the grandfathersâ€™ grandfather, which is running in our blood.â€
San Kim Sean told me that he began having nightmares about Cambodia. â€œIt was God telling me I needed to come home and help the Khmer people.â€
During the early 1990â€™s he returned to the stricken land to help rebuild the Khmer Hop Kido Association.Â â€œWe still arenâ€™t talking about Bokator.â€ I reminded him. â€œAnd you still have to wait.â€ He told me, in his friendly tone. Finally, in 1995, he moved back to Phnom Penh, became the leader of the Hop Kido Association, and began teaching Hop Kido. â€œBut, Bokatorâ€¦â€ I protested.
He waved his hand dismissively, and continued with the story. â€œFinally, in 2001, I left the Hop Kido school, an began teaching Bokator.â€ San Kim Sean is still a respected officer of the Hop Kido association. But, his true love is Bokator. And now he dedicates all of his time to this pursuit.
He began combing the countryside, looking for Bokator Masters who had survived the Khmer Rouge and the Vietnamese Regime. â€œThey were old. Many of them between sixty and ninety years of age.â€
The number of masters remaining was very small. And of that number, none were teaching. After being repressed under both the Khmer Rouge and the Vietnamese regime, the men were afraid to start teaching.
â€œI tried to tell them it was OK, we already had permission from the government, but they wouldnâ€™t listen.â€ Said San Kim Sean. The old men wanted to stay in the province. But San Kim Sean insisted. â€œYou have a great gift which was given to you by our ancestors. Do you want to steal it from our children? When you die, the art will die with.â€ â€œDid it work?â€ I asked.
â€œSome of them broke down in tears.â€ Laughed San Kim Sean, who seemed like he could be persuasive when he needed to. â€œIn April of 2004 we held the first Bokator conference in Phnom Penh. Now, there are schools in eight provinces. And, we are preparing for a national championships.â€
Most martial artists in the west canâ€™t be bothered to practice. Here was a man who had risked his life to preserve the arts. And more recently, had given up a well paying job I America in order to come back to Cambodia and help recover a lost art.
â€œI really respect what you have done here.â€ I told San Kim Sean. But the interview was finished, and now h wanted to kick me in the head some more.
The Bokator association needs financial support, as well as equipment. San Kim Sean has prepared what is probably the first ever Bokator textbook, written by a Khmer, in Cambodia. â€œWe want to produce ten thousand books, and give them to school children.â€ He told me sadly. â€œBut we have no money.â€ ~ by Antonio GraceffoYou might also like: